Interstitial lung disease (ILD) develops in up to 20% of primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) patients1–4
Among patients with pSS without prior ILD, the cumulative incidence of ILD increases with the duration of pSS: 10% (±3%) ILD at 1 year, 20% (±4%) by 5 years, and 43% (±7%) by 15 years10
Typical patient characteristics in pSS-ILD 3,8,11,12
pSS patients with ILD are characteristically female and smoke:3
- Even though male patients with pSS have a relatively greater risk of developing ILD vs. female patients, the typical pSS-ILD patient tends to be female since pSS in general is 13 times more prevalent in women vs. men3,8
- pSS with ILD is 8 times more likely with smoking and is 3 times more likely with ANA positivity3
What impact could ILD have on your patients with RA and how can you identify this threat?
Impact of pSS-ILD
Screening for ILD in pSS
Diagnosis of pSS-ILD
- ANA, antinuclear antibody; HRCT, high-resolution computed tomography; ILD, interstitial lung disease; OR, odds ratio; pSS, primary Sjögren's syndrome; pSS-ILD, primary Sjögren's syndrome-associated interstitial lung disease.
Watanabe M, Naniwa T, Hara M, et al. Pulmonary manifestations in Sjögren’s syndrome: correlation analysis between chest computed tomographic findings and clinical subsets with poor prognosis in 80 patients. J Rheumatol. 2010;37(2):365–373.
Sambataro G, Ferro F, Orlandi M, et al. Clinical, morphological features and prognostic factors associated with interstitial lung disease in primary Sjögren’s syndrome: A systematic review from the Italian Society of Rheumatology. Autoimmun Rev. 2020;19(2):102447.
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Roca F, Dominique S, Schmidt J, et al. Interstitial lung disease in primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Autoimmun Rev. 2017;16(1):48–54.
Guisado-Vasco P, Silva M, Duarte-Millán M A, et al. Quantitative assessment of interstitial lung disease in Sjögren’s syndrome. PLoS One. 2019;14(11):e0224772.
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Wang Y, Hou Z, Qiu M, Ye Q. Risk factors for primary Sjögren syndrome-associated interstitial lung disease. J Thorac Dis. 2018;10(4):2108–2117.
Dong X, Zhou J, Guo X, et al. A retrospective analysis of distinguishing features of chest HRCT and clinical manifestation in primary Sjögren’s syndrome-related interstitial lung disease in a Chinese population. Clin Rheumatol. 2018;37(11):2981–2988.
Nannini C, Jebakumar AJ, Crowson CS, et al. Primary Sjögren’s syndrome 1976–2005 and associated interstitial lung disease: a population-based study of incidence and mortality. BMJ Open. 2013;3(11):e003569.
Zhang T, Yuan F, Xu L, Sun W, et al. Characteristics of patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome associated interstitial lung disease and relevant features of disease progression. Clin Rheumatol. 2020;39(5):1561–1568.
Sogkas G, Hirsch S, Olsson KM, et al. Lung involvement in primary Sjögren’s syndrome—an under-diagnosed entity. Front Med (Lausanne). 2020;7:332.
Yazisiz V, Göçer M, Erbasan F, et al. Survival analysis of patients with Sjögren’s syndrome in Turkey: a tertiary hospital-based study. Clin Rheumatol. 2020;39(1):233–241.
Lee AS, Scofield RH, Hammitt KM, et al. Consensus guidelines for evaluation and management of pulmonary disease in Sjögren’s. Chest. 2020 Oct 20. doi: 10.1016/j. chest.2020.10.011.
Li X, Xu B, Ma Y, et al. Clinical and laboratory profiles of primary Sjögren’s syndrome in a Chinese population: a retrospective analysis of 315 patients. Int J Rheum Dis. 2015;18(4):439–446.